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什麼是獨立子句和從屬子句?-基礎文法學習

什麼是獨立子句與從屬子句?

  我們會說完整的句子基本組成會包含獨立子句和從屬子句,但其實子句就是一個”合格”句子,你可能會問? 那他們有什麼不同呢?為何要有所分別? 它們兩者最大的差異就是,句子可以表達完整的意思,但是子句不一定。

  首先,讓我們簡單說一下什麼是子句。子句是包含主詞和
動詞的一組詞,它可能是句子的一部分或句子本身。

  • Michelle laughed.  Michelle笑了。(Michelle=主詞;laughed=動詞;子句已經是一個完整的句子。)
  • Michelle laughed because of the dog. Michelle因為那隻狗而笑。(子句是句子的一部分。)
  • Michelle laughed because the dog barked at the mirror. Michelle笑了,因為那隻狗對著鏡子吠叫。(兩個子句在一個句子中。Michelle laughed.=子句1;the dog barked=子句2)

子句可以進一步分為獨立子句和從屬子句。下面我們將更詳細的帶您了解兩者的分別及用法,一起來看看吧!

獨立子句

獨立子句是包含主詞和動詞的短句,且已經表達了完整的思維,所以獨立子句可以獨立存在,不用再加其他的東西。

  • Jess finalized the plan for the trip. Jess敲定了這次旅行的計劃。
  • Mary cleaned the room before making breakfast. Mary在做早餐前打掃了房間。
  • Joseph was impressed with the proposal. Joseph對這個提議印象深刻。

可以以以下3種方式連接2個獨立子句

 

1.) 以使用分號連接兩個獨立的子句。

  • Jess finalized the plan for the trip; he sent the itinerary via e-mail. Jess敲定了這次旅行的計劃;他用電子郵件發送了行程。
  • Mary cleaned the room before making breakfast; Martha rushes for breakfast without cleaning up. Mary在做早餐前打掃了房間;Martha沒有打掃就衝過去吃早餐。
  • Joseph was impressed with the proposal; he accepted it with no questions. Joseph對這個提議印象深刻;他毫無疑問地接受了這個提議。

2.) 以對等連接詞連接獨立子句。

   用首字母縮寫詞 FANBOYS(for、and、nor、but、or、yet、so)很容易記住對等連接詞,別忘記要在對等連接詞之前加上逗號。這是為了避免連續句子。

  • Jess finalized the plan for the trip, and he sent the itinerary via e-mail.Jess 確定了旅行計劃,並用電子郵件發送了行程。
  • Mary cleaned the room before making breakfast, but Martha rushes for breakfast without cleaning up. Mary在做早餐前打掃了房間,但Martha沒有打掃就衝去吃早餐。
  • Joseph was impressed with the proposal, so he accepted it with no questions. Joseph對這個提議印象深刻,所以他毫無疑問地接受了這個提議。

3.) 使用連詞副詞來組合兩個獨立子句。

  常用的連接副詞有moreover, however, consequently, finally…等。在使用連接副詞時,要記得在第一個獨立子句之後使用分號,然後是連接副詞,再來是逗號,最後是第二個獨立子句。

  • Jess finalized the plan for the trip; moreover, he sent the itinerary via e-mail. Jess敲定了這次旅行的計劃;此外,他還用電子郵件發送了行程。
  • Mary cleaned the room before making breakfast; however, Martha rushes for breakfast without cleaning up. Mary在做早餐前打掃了房間;然而,Martha沒有打掃衛生就衝去吃早餐了。
  • Joseph was impressed with the proposal; consequently, he accepted it with no questions. Joseph對這個提議印象深刻,因此他毫無疑問地接受了這個提議。

從屬子句

  我們已經知道無論是獨立還是從屬子句,都有主語和動詞。從屬子句以一個從屬連接詞為首,無法表現有意義的思維,不能獨立存在。

  • Because her dog Sid took a dive into the icy water. 因為她的狗希德潛入冰冷的水中。
  • Though citizens are hesitant about getting the vaccine.  儘管公民對接種疫苗猶豫不決。

  Because和Though是從屬連接詞,兩個句子都不完整。因此我們必須將它們附加到獨立子句中,來完成完整的句子。

  • Because her dog Sid took a dive into the icy water, the woman rescued the dog immediately. 因為她的狗希德潛入冰冷的水中,女子立即將狗救了出來。

    從屬子句 = Because her dog Sid took a dive into the icy water
    獨立子句=the woman rescued the dog immediately

  • The government still thinks getting the vaccine is a good decision though the citizens are hesitant about it. 儘管公民對此猶豫不決,但政府仍然認為接種疫苗是一個不錯的決定。

    從屬子句 = though the citizens are hesitant about it
    獨立子句 = The government still thinks getting the vaccine is a good decision

  從屬子句時,正確的標點符號也很重要。像是第一句例句,如果從屬子句放在開頭,那麼在連接獨立子句時需要使用逗號。在第二句中,獨立子句在前,從屬子句緊隨其後,不需要放置任何標點符號。

獨立子句和從屬子句:練習

在下面的每個句子中,分別看看哪些是獨立子句和從屬子句。

  • While they were having dinner, the children were playing outside. 吃飯的時候,孩子們在外面玩。
  • Lucy couldn’t read the letters clearly, so she took out her glasses. 露西看不清楚這些字母,所以她拿出了眼鏡。
  • The actors got tired after the shoot since they shot their scenes for 12 hours. 由於12個小時的拍攝,演員們在拍攝後感到疲倦。
  • Jason accidentally deleted some files; nevertheless, he was able to recover the most important ones. Jason 不小心刪除了一些文件,不過他能夠恢復最重要的那些。
  • I will cook some food as soon as we arrive. 我們一到,我就會來做點食物。

檢查你的答案!(請反白以下內容)

  • While they were having dinner, the children were playing outside.
    獨立子句 = the children were playing outside
    從屬子句=While they were having dinner (While是從屬連接詞。)
  • Lucy couldn’t read the letters clearly, so she took out her glasses. Lucy看不清楚這些字母,所以她拿出了眼鏡。
    獨立子句 1 = Lucy couldn’t read the letters clearly
    獨立子句 2 = so she took out her glasses(so是對等連接詞。)
  • The actors got tired after the shoot since they shot their scenes for 12 hours. 由於12個小時的拍攝,演員們在拍攝後感到疲倦。
    獨立子句 = The actors got tired after the shoot
    從屬子句 = since they shot their scenes for 12 hours (since是從屬連接詞。)
  • Jason accidentally deleted some files; nevertheless, he was able to recover the most important ones. Jason 不小心刪除了一些文件,不過他能夠恢復最重要的那些。
    獨立子句 1 = Jason accidentally deleted some files
    獨立子句 2 =nevertheless, he was able to recover the most important ones.(nevertheless如此是一個連詞副詞。)
  • I will cook some food as soon as we arrive. 我們一到,我就會來做點食物。
    獨立子句 = I will cook some food
    從屬子句 = as soon as we arrive(as soon as是從屬連接詞。)
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