英文複句

什麼是英文複句?該如何組織它?


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你是否嘗試用英文建構長子句,但又覺得它們的結構不太正確。每一位英文使用者都必須了解英文中的基本句子結構

在英文中,有四種類型的句型結構:簡單句、複句、合句和複合句。每種句子結構都有獨特的功能,使句子結構正確。

簡單句由主語和謂語組成。例如,句子“She ate the apple”(她吃了蘋果)包含主語“She”(她)和謂語“ate the apple”(吃了蘋果)。

英文中的複句由一個主句和一個從屬子句組成,就像“She ran out of money due to too much shopping”(她因為購物太多而沒錢了)。這句話中的主句是“She ran out of money”(她沒錢了),從屬子句是“due to too much shopping”(因為購物太多)。

合句由兩個獨立子句構成,並用連詞連接。這種結構中使用的標點符號是逗號或分號。“The president was shot during his inauguration, but he survived it”(總統在就職典禮上被槍擊,但他活了下來)這句話包含兩個獨立的子句。

複合句是至少由兩個獨立的句子和一個從屬子句組成。請看下面的例子:

Even though the poll result has been released, the majority of the public questioned it, and the committee is reviewing it.
                          從屬子句                               獨立子句                                    獨立子句

在這四種類型中,本文將探討英文複句。我們會介紹句型結構並提供範例方便您更好理解。

什麼是英文複句?

英文複句的文法是重要組成部分。在寫作方面它有時會被英文非母語人士誤用。
了解英文複句的結構非常重要,因為句子的含義取決於使用正確的標點符號和連接詞。

如前所述,英文中的複句由一個獨立子句和一個從屬子句組成。獨立子句可以單獨作為一個完整的句子,而從屬子句則依賴獨立子句來提供上下文和意義,這說明從屬子句不是一個完整的句子。

英文複句

如何組成一個英文複句?

形成複句並不像它的名字所說的那麼“複雜”。只需要考慮一下結構。我們來看下方例子:

My mother cried an ocean of tears while watching her favorite soap opera.

獨立子句: My mother cried an ocean of tears
從屬子句: while watching her favorite soap opera

請注意,獨立子句可以單獨作為一個有主詞和謂詞的句子。我們可以單獨寫成一個完整的句子,如下所示:

My mother cried an ocean of tears.
             主語            謂語

另一方面,從屬子句以連詞“while”開頭,接著是一個不完整的短語。如果我們把它分開,就會讓我們無法理解句意。

                “while watching her favorite soap opera”
                               連接詞                     短句

上面的子句毫無意義,因為它給我們留下了一個問題:“誰在看她最喜歡的肥皂劇?”表述不清楚,但是如果我們將兩個子句(從屬子句和獨立子句)連結在一起,我們就可以形成一個重新定義的句子。

用從屬連接詞構成複句

從屬連詞“after, although, as, because, before, if, since, until, whereas, while”在英文中形成複句。

                例句:

                After the wedding ceremony, my friend and I will go to the club to party.
                Mr. Miller reported to work today, although he was feeling under the weather.
                My father thought I was awake as he saw me moving.
                Because of the flood, the buses were not able to get through.
                You should finish your homework before going to bed.
                He will meet me if he has time.
                She has been so depressed since her mother’s death.
                The application is open until further notice.
                The driver’s feet were wounded, whereas his arms were broken.
                I bumped into an associate while rushing to the elevator.

使用 WH 疑問詞 + ever 來形成複句

單詞“whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, 和 however”也用於複句中。以下是一些例句:

                You can choose whatever style of dress you like.
                Just let me know whenever you are ready.
                Wherever you go, I hope you’ll be fine.
                Whoever told you the information, I’m sure she’s lying.
                The sales results are not good however you look at them.

使用關係代名詞來形成複句

關係代名詞「that、which、who、whom、whose」也用在英文的複句中。

                That – 用於定義人、事物、動物、事件等的子句。

例句: This is the car that I used to drive.

                Which – 用作非限定關係子句,指涉事物、動物、事件等。

例句: The sales lady was able to record the incident which led to solving the crime.

                Who – 代表執行句子中的動作或前句所指的人。

例句: Dr. Peters is the son of the late Prime Minister Peters who lifted the country’s economic status to stability.

                Whom – 用來指稱接受句子中動作的人。

例句: I gave the book to my mother whom I love dearly.

                Whose – 指擁有某物。

例句: The army awarded Jane whose dedication to military service was commendable.

用英文組成複句具有挑戰性,因為必須考慮很多事情才能確保句子結構正確。如果了解基本規則並使用適當的連接詞,會更容易用英文組成複句。

除了考慮事情之外,你還必須考慮句子的含義。即使已經知道如何建構英文複句,也要確保其含義不受影響。不管你如何正確地寫出複雜的句子,只要意思表達不清楚,句子仍然會變得沒有意義。

學習基礎知識後,嘗試使用英文複句,會使溝通表達更順暢。

為什麼要使用英文複句?

作為語言學生,會被英文文法的各個方面的轟炸,但你不必擔心,因為這些不會成為學習障礙,而是提高語言能力的有用工具。學習英文複句等句子結構是執行有意義的對話和有效溝通的基石。

使用英文複句可以讓你清楚地表達你的想法,尤其是在寫作中。還可以讓你意識到使用正確的子句連接詞,使句子結構適當。

英文複句
英文複句

句子練習

這個時候你已經知道如何寫英文複句。讓我們來檢視一下你的學習成果吧!請從下方表格挑選單字

after

while

however

before

although

whatever

that

whenever

who

which

if

as

because

whereas

whom

whose

until

since

whichever

wherever

  1. I was washing the dishes ___________ talking to my mom.
  2. _____________ the man was deaf, he could understand what I was saying.
  3. Don’t just visit me ___________ you want!
  4. I am not sure _________ I could attend the party.
  5. You can decide on the design __________ you like to see it.
  6. The queen gave a reward to the lady __________ returned her lost tiara.
  7. She already left __________ I could respond.
  8. John was delighted to deliver the flowers to his fiancé _________ he adores the most.
  9. Did the teachers come in _________ the students had left the classroom?
  10. I heard _________ you wanted to see me.
  11. The accident made my dad amputated, __________ my mom was in a coma.
  12. _________ their breakup, Maddie still could not move on.
  13. ____________ you give me, I’d be more than appreciative of it.
  14. Please don’t call me _________ I reach out to you first.
  15. Don’t take my daughter ____________ you want.
  16. __________ for her, she’s a complete failure.
  17. My friend cannot forget the incident _________ made her choose to leave.
  18. __________ of the pandemic, many businesses were shut down.
  19. The CEO approached me __________ the presentation.
  20. The scores you are going to receive will depend on ___________ is higher.

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