情態助動詞 : Would/ Could/ Should的用法

情態助動詞
Would/ Could/ Should
的用法

什麼是情態助動詞呢? 

它是幫助主要動詞來表達能力、意願、請求、命令、責任、告誡或可能性…等表示不同語氣的詞。主要目的為說明主要動詞具有什麼樣的功能
  
would、should 和 could 是很多英文學習者常常混淆的三個常用情態助動詞。它們除了是will、shall和can的過去是之外,還有什麼特別的用法嗎? 你是否也對何時以及如何使用它們感到困惑?別擔心,今天本文將教你如何正確使用它們!

情態助動詞
Would

1.用would問問題(較有禮貌、客氣、委婉)。

  • Would you like some cookies? = Do you want some cookies? 你想要一些餅乾嗎?

W問句(who, what, when, where, why, how):

  • How would they do that difficult task? 他們將如何完成這項艱鉅的任務?
  • What time would you have dinner? 你幾點要吃晚飯?

 


2. 用would 來禮貌的提出要求。

  • I would like more cookies, please. = I want more cookies, please. 我想要更多的餅乾,拜託。

 


3. 用 would來假設過去不同的反應。

  • I would have assisted you if I had known you were there. 如果我知道你在那裡,我會幫助你的。
  • Ron would’ve missed the train if Jessa hadn’t reminded him of the train schedule.  要不是Jessa提醒他火車時刻表,Ron早就錯過火車了。


4. 用would來假設某情況的結果。(假設語氣if)

  • If I win the lottery, I would buy myself a Lamborghini truck.如果我中了彩票,我會給自己買一輛藍寶堅尼跑車。


5. 我們用它來淡化強烈的、有爭議的陳述——不推薦在正式論文中使用。

  • Tony would have justified his opinion in the meeting, but sadly, he failed to.  Tony本可以在會議上證明他的意見是正確的,但遺憾的是,他沒有這樣做。
  • I would have to say that your plan seems too ambitious. 我不得不說你的計劃似乎過於雄心勃勃。

*這裡的would與 do 作用相似,用於強調,但do沒有淡化強調的功能。

 


6.用would表示過去習慣性的動作。

  • Amy would cry whenever Tom would leave home. 每當湯姆離開家時,艾米都會哭。

 


7. 用would表示在兩個選擇中表達偏好,與rather 或soon 一起使用。

  • I would sooner die than face them. 我寧願死也不願面對他們。
  • She would rather sing than dance.  她寧願唱歌也不願跳舞。 

 


8.用would來表示選擇。

  • She would put off the test if she could. 如果可以(選擇),她會推遲考試。


9.用would來表示希望或期許。

  • Some people would permit to legalize the use of marijuana. 有些人想讓大麻的使用合法化。
  • They wish he would leave 他們希望他離開。

 


10. would用於表示意圖或計劃。

  • He said he would arrive early. 他說他打算早點到。

 


11.用would表示懷疑。

  • His answer would seem to be correct. 他的回答似乎是正確的。 

 


12. 用would表示未來的可能性。

  • She estimated she would get to the house around 7 p.m. 她估計她(可能)會在晚上 7 點左右到家。

情態助動詞
Should

1. 用should表示責任義務。

  • Should you have fixed the broken door? = Were you supposed to have fixed the broken door?  你應該把壞掉的門修好吧?
  • Should we turn in our homework now? = Are we supposed to turn in our homework now? 我們現在應該交作業嗎? 

*這裡should 和 ought 意思差不多。


2. 用should 表示建議。

  • You should eat fruits and vegetables every day.你應該每天吃水果和蔬菜。
  • Everyone should avoid eating too much junk food.每個人都應該避免吃太多垃圾食品。


3. 用should表示未來可能發生的事件。(假設語氣if)

  • If I should save enough next week, I will buy myself a new pair of shoes.  如果我下周存夠錢,我就給自己買一雙新鞋。

*should可以從上面的句子中省略 : “If I save enough next week, I will buy myself a new pair of shoes.”或者,如果可以省略If:“Should I save enough next week, I will buy myself a new pair of shoes.”

4. 用should來表達可能性。

  • Annie should be here by 10 AM so that we can start the meeting early. Annie應該可以在上午 10 點前到場,以便我們可以早點開始會議。


5. 用should禮貌委婉地請求或陳述。

  • I should like to eat early dinner now. 我現在想早點吃晚飯。 
  • I should think that reforestation is necessary for mother earth to recover from global warming. 我認為重新造林對於減緩全球變暖是必要的。

情態助動詞
Could

1. can的過去式:

In the past, all the people could breathe fresh air even in big cities. 過去,即使在大城市,所有人都可以呼吸到新鮮空氣。

 

2. 用 could 來提問(禮貌委婉)。

  • Could you have fixed the broken door? 你能修好那扇壞掉的門嗎?
  • Could I go now?  我現在可以走了嗎?
  • Could you hand me the pen, please?  請把筆遞給我好嗎? 


3.用could表示能力。

  • I could study harder than I do. 我可以更努力地學習。


4. 表示猜測:

  • She could be wrong. 她可能是錯的。

情態助動詞小結
Would Should Could

情態助動詞是置於主要動詞(原型)之前、一種用來表達語氣的助動詞,通常會拿來表示禮貌委婉。雖然我們上面提及了許多其他用法,但還是有比較常用的用法,如下:

Would:主要用於假設、要求
Should:主要用於責任、建議
Could:主要用於表示能力、可能性

 

對於情態助動詞—Would, Should, and Could更了解了嗎? 
想了解其他動詞相關知識?

點擊此處以了解更多動詞
 

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